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BOBTANDEM - Band Offset selective Barrier Three Terminal perovskite on silicon high efficiency Tandem Solar Cell

In global solar cell research, multijunction solar cells (or “tandems”) are the most promising route to improving crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells. They consist of two (tandem) or more solar cells of increasing bandgap which are combined in one device and can reach efficiencies well beyond 29%. These multijunction cells achieve such high efficiencies by reducing the amount of cell heating due to the incident sunlight, and by instead collecting some of this heat as useful electrical power. This is termed “reducing themalisation losses”. These MJ solar cells come in a range of configurations in terms of connection. Briefly, these traditionally include two terminal (2T) and four terminal (4T) designs have yielded the best results but suffer technological bottlenecks due to tunnel junctions (2T) which impose current continuity and grid alignment (4T). The BOBTANDEM project proposes a new three terminal (3T) concept which we call the “3T-SBOB” which eliminates the 2T and 4T technological bottlenecks. The 3T-SBOB device, patented in 2018, uses an internal barrier (the Selective Band Offset Barrier or SBOB) to allow this reduction in thermalisation by isolating charged current carriers in different regions of the cell.The result is that the two cells making up 3T-SBOB device operate independently without serieslimitations, and with a single grid on the front surface, together with interdigitated back contacts on the back surface.The BOBTandem project will demonstrate this concept for the first time, using the exciting emerging perovskite solar cell technology and integrating it with a silicon back-contact solar cell which is in industrial mass production by the project partner ISC-Konstanz.The project is coordinated by researchers at the origin of the 3T-SBOB concept (GeePs CentraleSupelec / CNRS / EDF). The perovskite cell is integrated by perovskite solar cell researchers (EPFL) active since the start of the field of perovskites. The interdigitated back contact silicon expertise and fabrication is assured by solar cell industrial partners managing mass production of the ZEBRA IBC cell in 2019. Theoretical modelling and analysis is provided by researchers at the PVMD group of TU Delft deploying accurate optical modelling and comprehensive energy yield modelling of the 3T SBOB device. These researchers are brought together with the recently patented concept, which has been independently demonstrated in the fie ld of infra-red detectors. These strong industrially-validated IBC and SBOB concepts yield a novel 35% efficient tandem device without the limitation of tunnel junctions, and without the complex optical interconnection issues of 4T designs.


Related IP activities: New Technologies & Materials

Addressed IP targets: Major advances in efficiency of established technologies (Crystalline Silicon and Thin Films) and new concepts

Funding Scheme: ERA.NET

% of PV in the project: 100

Total budget: € 1685102.0

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FUN - Sputtered and otherwise deposited a-Si for Fabricating passivated screen- printed contacts for an indUstrially feasible productioN

The overall aim of the project is to provide highly performing photovoltaics and reduce the cost of solar technology. Therefore, we selected the EpiWafer process (epitaxially grown Si wafers) to produce highly cost-effective Si wafers and combine them with a high efficiency silicon solar cell process based on the approach of passivated contacts and screen-printing metallization. Therefore, this project develops and characterizes on the one hand a specific gettering process and on the other hand screen-printing metal pastes for contacting doped polycrystalline or amorphous Si layers


Related IP activities: Technologies for silicon solar cells and modules with higher quality

Addressed IP targets: Major advances in efficiency of established technologies (Crystalline Silicon and Thin Films) and new concepts

Funding Scheme: ERA.NET

% of PV in the project: 100

Total budget: € 1184149

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In4CIS - New in-line optical methodologies for advanced assessment of high efficiency CIGS industrial processes

In4CIS aims to establish and demonstrate at pre-industrial level optical advanced methodologies for the in-line assessment of advanced processes in Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) thin film photovoltaic technologies.


Related IP activities: Manufacturing technologies

Addressed IP targets: Major advances in efficiency of established technologies (Crystalline Silicon and Thin Films) and new concepts

Funding Scheme: ERA.NET

% of PV in the project: 100

Total budget: € 790157

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NFA4R2ROPV - Industrial roll-to-roll (R2R) printing of highly efficient non-fullerene acceptor (NFA)-based organic photovoltaics (OPV)

Organic photovoltaics (OPVs) are based on semiconducting carbon-based materials. In OPV industry they are fabricated out of benign (green) solvents using roll-to-roll (R2R) coating or printing techniques. Their working principle differs quite significantly from standard photovoltaics (PV), as light rays are absorbed in the bulk of organic layers not at a discrete interface. This leads to strongly different key performance indicators such as a good low and diffuse light performance, angular independence and an efficiency that rises with higher temperatures.State-of-the-art commercially available large-scale OPV is based on fullerene acceptors with a decent efficiency up to 5%. In recent years, OPVs based on novel non-fullerene acceptors (NFA) have gained attention, as efficiencies close to 15% could be demonstrated in the lab. However, this was achieved on the basis of using toxic or harmful chlorinated solvents. It is now of large interest to the OPV industry to exploit the potential of NFAs also in large-scale OPV manufacturing, which will help to take a further step forward in the commercialization of the technology. But in this respect, strictly benign solvents need to be deployed.This project brings together five world-leading partners (three from academia and two from industry) from the OPV community with the objective to demonstrate printed, large-scale, NFA-based OPV modules fabricated out of benign solvents with efficiencies well beyond the current state of the art. The consortium has the complementary expertise necessary for this project, including device design, morphology characterizations, photophysics, device physics, and large-scale printing. The availability of this broad range of expertise will allow us to achieve our objectives using both the fundamental mechanistic understanding and careful engineering of the fabrication processes. The results will significantly advance the state of the art of OPVs and contribute to provide affordable and clean energy. Environmentally friendly solvents for processing OPVs will also help to improve the working environment and minimize negative environmental impact of the OPV production.


Related IP activities: Manufacturing technologies

Addressed IP targets: Major advances in efficiency of established technologies (Crystalline Silicon and Thin Films) and new concepts

Funding Scheme: ERA.NET

% of PV in the project: 100

Total budget: € 1902642

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UNIQUE - Carbon Based Perovskite Solar Cells with UNI-Directional Electron Bulk Transport: in the QUEst of a Short Time to Market

Unique European know-how and industrial involvement is combined here to realize high-efficient large area perovskite devices with long lifetimes for a truly commercially viable perovskite PV technology. Sustainable, industrial-relevant processes and low-cost materials are implemented to aim at a competitive new-generation of PV. Short energy- and CO2-payback times and a low CO2emission are key factors accounted for in this proje


Related IP activities: New Technologies & Materials

Addressed IP targets: Major advances in efficiency of established technologies (Crystalline Silicon and Thin Films) and new concepts

Funding Scheme: ERA.NET

% of PV in the project: 100

Total budget: € 2654447.6

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Advanced modeling and charcaterization of high efficiency solar cells and photovoltaic modules (J2-1717)

The small basic research project »Advanced modeling and characterization of high efficiency solar cells and photovoltaic modules« is primarily focusing on investigation and development of advanced modelling concepts of single and multi-junction solar cells and PV modules in line with characterization that is needed for validation of the models and improved device concepts.
The aim of the project is to develop advanced models and simulation tools with predictive power that will speed up the experimental R&D of high-efficiency silicon based solar cells and modules in terms of improved performance as well as device stability and reliability.
Advanced concepts will be applied (but not limited) to tandem perovskite/silicon solar cell and PV module technology, presenting promising solution to overcome 30 % of conversion efficiency.
Project objectives will be pursued by means of R&D through a continuous loop of design, modeling, experimental validation of device components and their implementation in complete high-efficiency solar cells and modules. In collaboration with experts from Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin structures for model validation and for the proof of improved device concepts will be fabricated in all stages of the project.
The proposed solutions will aim at higher conversion efficiencies of the solar cells and PV modules, lower consumption of the material, reducing energy and process time in the production. As an outcome, significant improvements in performance of solar cells and in PV module competitiveness are expected.


Related IP activities: New Technologies & Materials

Addressed IP targets: Major advances in efficiency of established technologies (Crystalline Silicon and Thin Films) and new concepts

Funding Scheme: National funding scheme - ARRS 2019

% of PV in the project: 100

Total budget: € 100000

PV4.0

Photovoltaics is gradually becoming the cheapest source of electricity in most of the world. This is made possible by access to low-cost capital and lower investment costs for photovoltaic systems. On the other hand, since the operating and maintenance costs of photovoltaic systems are part of the percentage of investment costs, many Operation and Maintenance (O&M) companies are working with increasingly narrow margins in an increasingly competitive market.

Reduced costs and tight margins often have a negative impact on the overall quality of a PV project. Performance evaluation and the search for reliability along the entire value chain thus take on a new dimension and require the development of innovative methodologies and solutions. The objective of this project is to develop a technological system for the management of the activities of O&M companies according to the principles of industry 4.0, in order to optimize the decision-making process, thus minimizing time and operating cost.


Related IP activities: Operation and diagnosis of photovoltaic plants

Addressed IP targets: Further enhancement of lifetime, quality and sustainability and hence improving environmental performance

Funding Scheme: ERDF

% of PV in the project: 100

Total budget: € 433261.1

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MULTI-terminal Photovoltaic device with global LIght collection for maximum EneRgy yield (MULTIPLIER)

The only proven method to significantly increase the efficiency beyond the limits of conventional silicon technology is the use of multijunction devices, either with or without optical concentration. However, most multi-junction devices are current-matched and there is uncertainty about how the changes in the solar spectrum as a function of time may affect their energy production. Also, the efficiency of current-matched devices is very sensitive to the choice of bandgap energies in the absorbing materials. The three-terminal heterostructure bipolar transistor solar cell (3T-HBTSC), first proposed in 2015 by researchers participating in our consortium [Martí & Luque, Nat. Comm. 6, 6902, 2015] overcomes these difficulties by removing the constraint of current matching. This is achieved with an extremely compact layer structure that resembles a bipolar transistor (npn or pnp) and does not require the implementation of tunnel junctions, isolating layers, or intermediate contact layers. In the MULTIPLIER project we will produce proof-of-concept prototypes of 3T-HBTSC based on III-V technology and on silicon/perovskite technology. We will also combine the 3T-HBTSC with a bottom cell to realize a two-terminal triple-junction device solar cell which maintains to a great extent the high spectral tolerance and tolerance against the choice of bandgap energies found for HBTSCs. In the first year of the MULTIPLIER project, we ha have demonstrated a GaInP/GaAs 3T-HBTSC prototype in collaboration with NREL (USA).


Related IP activities: New Technologies & Materials,Cross-sectoral research at lower TRL

Addressed IP targets: Further enhancement of lifetime, quality and sustainability and hence improving environmental performance ,Other

Funding Scheme: Spanish Minister for Science - Retos Investigacion

% of PV in the project: 100

Total budget: € 496350

MATERIALS, DEVICES & TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE PV INDUSTRY

For the first time in history, in 2017, the power of photovoltaic solar energy (PV) installed in the world exceeded the installed nuclear power. As a source of renewable energy, and facing the global challenge posed by climate change, solar PV receives the support and general consensus of society for its implementation. The price reduction of recent years may lead one to think that the deployment of solar energy has no barriers and that it has reached the end of its history of scientific development. This is not the case and the development of photovoltaic solar energy still presents technological challenges whose resolution our program wants to contribute to. Following the description proposed by the European Commission (https://goo.gl/43x87A), it is possible to group the objectives with which our program aims to respond to these technological challenges according to their TRL (Technology Readiness Levels) as we do below. The following are our general objectives:
1. Develop basic science in order to support the technological problems of the development of the photovoltaic
industry. The development of this objective uses TRLs 1 to 4 since it involves activities such as the development of new contacts for solar cells and the development of new types of solar cells.
2. Develop more efficient solar cells. The development of this objective uses TRLs 5 to 7 since its activities are devoted to the development of bifacial solar cells and multijunction solar cells already tested in a relevant industrial environment.
3. Develop energy storage systems. On the issue of energy storage development, our consortium returns to
TRL 12 levels, as it intends, for example, to develop a novel idea to solve the problem of energy storage
based on the storage of energy in molten silicon and its recovery by thermophotovoltaic devices.
4. Develop the technology of the industry related to the end user of photovoltaic solar energy. The development of this objective uses activities that move in the TRLs 8 9 that are the closest to the industry and
that use complete and proven photovoltaic systems. These are the activities related to the optimization of photovoltaic systems, water pumping, heat pumps and module repair.
Interdisciplinary nature: Our program is interdisciplinary because it uses disciplines that cover the full spectrum
of photovoltaic solar energy, ranging from basic science to photovoltaic systems engineering. Thus, our consortium is able to manufacture the semiconductor materials with which solar cells are made (since it has techniques such as the molecular beam epitaxy, MBE, and the chemical deposition of semiconductors in vapor phase from metal organic precursors, MOCVD ), has the capacity to manufacture solar cells (photolithography, metallization, encapsulation ...) and also the capacity to characterize, not only these cells, but the modules and photovoltaic plants that are made with them.
Expected results and potential impact: We hope to demonstrate that new solar cell architectures such as transistor type are possible, bifacial solar cells that can lead to a new generation of more efficient modules;
demonstrate the feasibility of using molten silicon as an energy storage system; more profitable photovoltaic
plants and expand the use of photovoltaic solar energy to water pumping systems and heat pumps. The impact
of all these results is summarized in the contribution of our consortium to the expansion of the photovoltaic
industry thanks to a reduction in the level cost of electricity from photovoltaic sources (LCOE) and the
expansion of its applications.


Related IP activities: Technologies for silicon solar cells and modules with higher quality,New Technologies & Materials,Operation and diagnosis of photovoltaic plants,Manufacturing technologies

Addressed IP targets: Major advances in efficiency of established technologies (Crystalline Silicon and Thin Films) and new concepts ,Reduction of the cost of key technologies ,Further enhancement of lifetime, quality and sustainability and hence improving environmental performance ,Major advances in manufacturing and installation

Funding Scheme: Programa Tecnologias 2019 Comunidad de Madrid

% of PV in the project: 100

Total budget: € 943850

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RelaxSolaire

Solar cell absorbers must fulfill a number of requirements for high performance: Appropriate bandgap,
high charge carrier mobility and lifetime, appropriate work function to match charge carrier
selective conductive layers, and an appropriate design for light capturing. In order to avoid charge
carrier recombination, classical semiconductors necessitate exclusive crystal purification
techniques removing point and extended defects to very low concentrations. Recently, we
showed that the outstanding performance of the new halide perovskite absorbers is partly due to
dielectric screening effects. The competition between classical phonon based polaron formation
and dipolar dielectric screening permits charge carriers (electrons as well as holes) to propagate
very long distances in the crystal without formation of small polarons (states deep in the bandgap)
and negligible interaction with existing point defects (vacancies or foreign atoms).
This proposal deals with the transfer of this result to those oxide perovskites, in which also two
independent polar mechanisms arise, namely relaxor ferroelectrics. Polar nanoregions (PNRs)
as well as the classical Fröhlich polaron screening provide independent screening mechanisms.
We assume that a similar performance as in the halides can be achieved at much improved
lifetime and robustness of the material. The project aims at tuning the band gap of existing relaxor
systems towards the optimum for the solar spectrum (around 1.3 eV). The promising candidate
relaxor system PbFe0.5Nb0.5O3 (PFN) possesses a band gap of around 1.0 eV. The chemical
versatility of the perovskites will allow us to tailor the bandgap and the work function by cation
doping. This facile material design will enable the development of a (graded) heterojunction solar
cell containing a PFN layer and adjacent layers of doped PFN with properly aligned energy levels,
thus obtaining cells with efficient photon capture as well as charge extraction.
Efforts of thin film and cell engineering will be continually accompanied by investigation of band
structures, structural properties, and charge carrier dynamics. Thus, on the one hand we will
achieve new technical developments for heterojunction solar cells and on the other hand gain and
provide new insights into relaxor based photovoltaics of interest for a broad community in solid
state physics.


Related IP activities: New Technologies & Materials

Addressed IP targets: Major advances in efficiency of established technologies (Crystalline Silicon and Thin Films) and new concepts

Funding Scheme: Other - ANR

% of PV in the project: 100

Total budget: € 171720

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MORELESS

Since a few years, the perovskite solar cells (PSCs) have emerged as a new technology for next-generation photovoltaics. These materials, as exemplified by the archetypal methyl-ammonium lead tri-iodide (CH3NH3)PbI3 (MAPI), have several key advantages: PSCs can be prepared using solution processing at temperature not exceeding 150°C, and their power conversion efficiencies (PCE) reach over 22%. However, PSCs have two main drawbacks: they contain the toxic lead element, and they exhibit chemical instabilities to moisture, oxygen, light, etc.
In this context, the central goal of the MORELESS project is to develop new materials belonging to the family of halide perovskites, suitable for light absorption in PV devices and offering improved stability (“MORE stable” than MAPI) while alleviating the most troubling issue of toxicity (“LESS lead” than MAPI). MORELESS will implement two different strategies. The first strategy consists in the search for lead deficient HPs materials (d-HPs). This new type of hybrid perovskites, (A,A’)1+xPb1-xI3-x (A, A’, organic monocations), discovered recently by the PI, contains less lead while keeping a 3D architecture, is more stable than MAPI and offers increased flexibility of its chemical composition. We propose to focus on this new type of hybrid perovskite by preparing new materials through substitutions on the A, A’, Pb and I sites. MORELESS also aims at discovering new kinds of d-HPs materials. The second strategy seeks for lead-free materials based on iodobismuthate or iodoantimonate networks. These materials are known to be stable and easily prepared as thin films. While non-perovskite compounds have been mainly used for PSCs applications, we propose to focus on 1D and 2D perovskite networks (corner-sharing octahedra) based materials. The next targets will be stabilization of 3D perovskite NMI3 (M= Bi3+/Sb3+), using neutral molecule N, consistently with recent predictions, as well as monovalent cation such as Ag+ in order to stabilize bismuth(antimony)-rich M3+/Ag+ perovskite networks. Once interesting materials will be obtained and characterized (X-ray, NMR, and others), thin films will be prepared to afford well-crystallized, fully covering, efficient light absorbing and adherent thin films. These layers will be characterized by XRD, SEM, EDX, AFM and XPS. Then the PSCs will be prepared and the cell performances determined for the various new perovskites (e.g., J-V curve measurements and impedance spectroscopy). For the best materials, other full studies will be carried out, particularly the aging of the layers will be followed by several techniques. First principles calculations and modeling will be performed both to support the interpretation of available experimental findings, including NMR data, and provide guidance to determine the choice of the next synthetic targets. Available structural data will allow investigation of electronic and optical properties in relation with experimental outcomes and DFT methods will provide complementary insight for foreseen atomic substitutions.
MORELESS is a collaborative project between partners having experience in the field of HPs and a strong expertise in complementary fields that are essential for successful outcome. This multidisciplinary project includes chemistry of materials (task 1), preparation and characterizations of PSCs (task 2) and modeling (task 3). At Moltech-Anjou (Angers, partner 1), the design, and the preparation of materials as well as X-ray characterizations will be assumed by N. Mercier, the coordinator of the project. At the IMMM institute (Le Mans, partner 2), the solid state NMR characterization of materials will be performed by J. Dittmer. In the MPOE-IRCP group of T. Pauporté (Chimie ParisTech, partner 3), material shaping, notably the electrical and optical characterizations and solar cell measurements and aging issue will be carried out. At ISCR (Partner 4) C. Katan will coordinate the theoretical work.


Related IP activities: New Technologies & Materials

Addressed IP targets: Major advances in efficiency of established technologies (Crystalline Silicon and Thin Films) and new concepts

Funding Scheme: Other - ANR

% of PV in the project: 100

Total budget: € 505440

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AMELIZ

The AMELIZ project sees in copper (Cu) a perfect alternative to Ag: the project aims to demonstrate and engineer the key materials and mechanisms governing plating selectivity as well as grid performance and reliability, focusing on technical routes enabling for low cost integration into SHJ solar cells. Highly conductive material and hundred times cheaper than Ag, Cu is a promising candidate to boost solar cell efficiency and take part in the final reduction of the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE).


Related IP activities: Technologies for silicon solar cells and modules with higher quality

Addressed IP targets: Major advances in efficiency of established technologies (Crystalline Silicon and Thin Films) and new concepts

Funding Scheme: Other - ANR

% of PV in the project: 100

Total budget: € 378331

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THESIS

Today, single junction silicon technology dominates the photovoltaic (PV) market, with more than 90% of market share. However, the power conversion efficiency of silicon solar cells is now close to the theoretical limit. Indeed, the record has been pushed to 26.7 %, which is close to the silicon single junction theoretical limit of approximately 29% when the unavoidable Auger recombination is taken into account.
To increase solar cell efficiency above 30% while keeping the abundant, cheap and stable silicon material as a basis, one solution is to couple silicon with another semiconductor having a larger bandgap in a tandem cell configuration. Currently, silicon based tandem technology follows two paths: the monolithic two terminals tandem (2TT) where the top and the bottom sub-cells are electrically and optically connected, and the four terminals tandem (4TT) where the two sub-cells are electrically independent. However, the 2TT architecture needs to manage photocurrent matching and to optimize the tunnel junction charges transport mechanisms between the top and the bottom sub-cells, while the 4TT device has to deal with issues related to the buried contacts shadowing and access and losses induced by the adhesive interconnection.
The THESIS proposal aims at developing an original 3 terminals tandem solar cell (3TT).


Related IP activities: Technologies for silicon solar cells and modules with higher quality

Addressed IP targets: Major advances in efficiency of established technologies (Crystalline Silicon and Thin Films) and new concepts

Funding Scheme: Other - ANR

% of PV in the project: 100

Total budget: € 686222

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S-LoTTUS - Scalable Low-cost Tandem Tunnel junctions for Silicon Solar

To develop a continuous process for scalable low-cost tunnel junctions (TJ) compatible with single-cell-like further processing.


Related IP activities: Technologies for silicon solar cells and modules with higher quality,New Technologies & Materials,Manufacturing technologies

Addressed IP targets: Reduction of the cost of key technologies ,Major advances in manufacturing and installation

Funding Scheme: Other - FCT - Portuguese Science and Technology Foundation

% of PV in the project: 100%

Total budget: € 240000

BIPVBOOST

BIPVBOOST is developing technical solutions to foster building-integrated photovoltaic (PV) applications in buildings. The buildings sector is one of the major energy consumers. Hence, there is great potential to improve the situation by integrating renewable energy systems such as PV into buildings. However, so far the industry lacks holistic solutions that suffice customer requirements in meeting the energy target set by the EU. BIPVBOOST aims to develop highly efficient and multifunctional energy producing construction materials in order to provide market opportunities at a world-wide level for the European photovoltaic and construction industry. BIPVBOOST addresses the whole value chain. The project strives to achieve significant cost reduction while maintaining flexibility of design, high performance, long-term reliability and design aesthetics. Furthermore, BIPVBOOST puts emphasis on standardisation and regulatory compliance to allow for fast market uptake. To achieve this, the project is designing a flexible and automated manufacturing line for building integrated photovoltaic system. Furthermore, BIPVBOOST provides energy management tools that optimally address the operational needs of the buildings energy system. This digital approach provides the means for advanced standardisation activities and thus significant cost reduction of building’s PV systems.


Related IP activities: PV for BIPV and similar applications

Addressed IP targets: Enabling mass realization of NZEB by BIPV through the establishment of structural collaborative innovation efforts between the PV sector and key sectors from the building industry

Funding Scheme: H2020

% of PV in the project: 100

Total budget: € 11434538.8

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Tandem Cells Improved Optically

The project TACIt main concern is to identify the most effective light trapping (LT) strategies to improve the efficiency of a 3-terminal tandem solar cell, based on a crystalline Si (c-Si) silicon cell. Besides the c-si solar cell, the tandem solar cell includes a SiGe sub-cell and a high bandgap (Eg>1.7 eV) solar cell. The ideal material and geometry of the top-cell will be determined by computer simulations. Computer simulations will also help to identify the best LT strategies to be used in each tandem cell region. The tandem cell architecture used doesn't require current matching, hence the sub-cells currents can be independently optimized. Two different types of LT strategies will be used: one based on metal-assisted chemical etching (Mace), and the other based on nanofabrication of LT structures and deposition of high index dielectric materials. Advanced passivation schemes will be applied to the Mace LT structures to reduce surface recombination.


Related IP activities: New Technologies & Materials

Addressed IP targets: Major advances in efficiency of established technologies (Crystalline Silicon and Thin Films) and new concepts

Funding Scheme: Other - National Funding for Scientific Research & Technological Development Projects (FCT 2017)

% of PV in the project: 100%

Total budget: € 225000

BE-Smart

Integrating solar panels into building façades and roofs enable the substitution of traditional building materials with high quality architectural designs contributing to reduce CO2 emissions.

The project is expected to contribute to the implementation of Zero-Energy Building policies. Achieving a substantial reduction to BIPV costs in the building sector provides an opportunity for the European industry to differentiate its products from standardised or otherwise, low value PV modules. It is necessary for EU manufacturers to develop Energy Positive Glazing in providing premium value solutions to the construction sector and to enable Nearly Zero-Energy Buildings.

In order to develop sustainable solutions to decrease the cost of BIPV and allow for significant market growth, the Be-Smart project is pursuing the following objectives:
Be-Smart will support EU industrialisation

Be-Smart will support the industrialisation of new materials and processes in the manufacturing of multi-functional BIPV elements. Implementing the newest “transformative approach” strategies, such as revolutionary white or coloured PV elements based on ubiquitous c-Si solar cells, is its focus. Leaner and more automated manufacturing processes will allow easier visual modification integration of the elements.

Be-Smart will demonstrate cost reduction
Be-Smart will propose new roadmaps
Be-Smart will position BIPV as a construction material
Be-Smart will substantiate the results of the project


Related IP activities: PV for BIPV and similar applications,Manufacturing technologies

Addressed IP targets: Reduction of the cost of key technologies ,Enabling mass realization of NZEB by BIPV through the establishment of structural collaborative innovation efforts between the PV sector and key sectors from the building industry ,Major advances in manufacturing and installation

Funding Scheme: H2020

% of PV in the project: 60

Total budget: € 10000000

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Cover Power - Smart Glass Coatings for Innovative BiPV Solutions

From many research & development activities on PV module applications it has been found in recent years that the optical appearance of PV modules is mainly determined by the outer side (environmental side) of the cover glass of the modules. In particular, reflections of the incident light on the cover glass surface are essentially responsible for the overall optical perception of the modules. It is precisely this fact that makes it difficult to effectively tune the aesthetics of a photovoltaic module, for example by changing the color of the solar cells used. In contrast, it is more promising to modify the surface that is mainly responsible for the optical perception to match the design: the outer surface of the cover glass.
The project Cover Power addresses exactly this challenge. By combining different kinds of glass coating technologies, the project results will allow for new degrees of freedom for the design of PV modules for BiPV solutions. The results will in particular enable the modules to be colored effectively and also address a problem that in the past has proven to be an obstacle for some facade-integrated BiPV projects: glare. The aim of the project is to develop prototypes of BiPV modules that are based on the typical glass-glass PV module technology in combination with Si solar cells by applying novel glass coatings to the outer side of their cover glasses. These module prototypes should have the following properties:
− Flexible and innovative design in terms of color and surface texture
− Minimum glare (less than 0.1% of specular reflection)
− At least 150 W/m² (STC) by exploiting back reflected light in bi-facial cells
− Aging and adhesion of surface coatings are carefully investigated and reliable for at least 30 years
A further objective is the realization of a BiPV installation in a façade and a roof to demonstrate the feasibility of the developed module prototypes. This installation will be in operation beyond the end of the project


Related IP activities: PV for BIPV and similar applications

Addressed IP targets: Enabling mass realization of NZEB by BIPV through the establishment of structural collaborative innovation efforts between the PV sector and key sectors from the building industry

Funding Scheme: ERA.NET

% of PV in the project: 100

Total budget: € 470787

THINKPV

The European Union policy for climate and energy imposes significant targets for a high integration of renewable energy sources in the period from 2020 to 2030. System operators have to deal with operational flexibility to respond to variability and to uncertainty of the renewable generation, ensuring the network reliability and security. While significant efforts have been made into the developing accurate forecasts, much work remains to integrate the forecasting in the electric system operations. The successful incorporation of forecasts into grid operation emerges as an important challenge. Accurate photovoltaic (PV) generation forecasts are major themes of the research roadmap of many international task forces, as Smart Grids SRA 2035 to support the flexibility increasing of the power systems. In this context, the project aims to support large scale integration of PV systems in countries with a high solar resource and a significant potential of small capacity PV systems such as Greece. The Institute of Communication and Computer Systems (ICCS) is the most important Hellenic research institute, committed to support Hellenic Electricity Distribution Network Operator S.A. (HENDO) that is dealing with a radical modernization of the existing network. The THINKPV project encourages the ICCS and its industrial partners to facilitate PV grid integration by the development of a probabilistic forecasting system based on machine learning, taking advantage of data that can be measured in the distribution network, in order to improve forecast accuracy compared to the state of art. The model will be assembled into a solar power forecasting system that will be operational at the Electric Energy Systems Laboratory (EESL) of the ICCS to operate directly with tools for simulating power system operations. A prototype of operational solar forecasting systems will be demonstrated for HENDO, providing also a training program for its efficiency and correct application.


Related IP activities: Operation and diagnosis of photovoltaic plants

Addressed IP targets: Further enhancement of lifetime, quality and sustainability and hence improving environmental performance

Funding Scheme: H2020

% of PV in the project: 100

Total budget: € 152653.2

Rolling Solar

The Rolling Solar project aims to catalyze a lasting cross border collaboration between industry, research and stakeholders on photovoltaics, materials, manufacturing, installation, grid, and road infrastructure. This collaboration includes technology development, dissemination and validation of knowledge. Goal is to technically enable local manufacturers and building and construction companies to realize cost effective integration of long lengths of solar cell materials into public infrastructure. As a result, large scale durable electricity generation without additional land use will be enabled close to point of use. For example, PV integrated in all 35,000 km of Dutch bicycle road would generate 15 TWh of electricity per year, equivalent to a CO2 reduction in the order of 5 million tonnes per year.


Related IP activities: PV for BIPV and similar applications

Addressed IP targets: Enabling mass realization of NZEB by BIPV through the establishment of structural collaborative innovation efforts between the PV sector and key sectors from the building industry ,Major advances in manufacturing and installation

Funding Scheme: Interreg

% of PV in the project: 80

Total budget: € 572174175

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