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OXYGENE

The OXIGEN project aims to develop a new crystalline silicon (c-Si) photovoltaic (PV) cell generation, and to obtain = 23% efficiency on large area devices. The studies will focus on the fabrication of ultra-thin junctions and functionalized oxides to reach transparent and passivated contacts using industrial processes. Two technologies will be highlighted in this project, the first one being Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII) which is ideal to obtain ultra-thin junctions. The second one, based on fast Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD), is developed by the French company Encapsulix and will be used for the fabrication of innovative electrodes allowing both surface passivation and charge carrier collection. This collaboration in the field of functionalized oxides for c-Si PV cells will be great to share high level scientific knowledge and research tools. The project will be coordinated by CEA-LITEN (LHMJ) because most of the process integration will be done at INES facilities. The scientific expertise of four academic labs (INL, LMGP, IMEP LAHC, GEEPS-IPVF) on the thin films/interface/device fabrication, simulation and characterizations will be necessary for all technological improvements of OXYGEN cells structures. All technological and scientific improvements will be done in collaboration with a start-up (ENCAPSULIX), which will offer specific skills in industrial process development.


Related IP activities: Technologies for silicon solar cells and modules with higher quality

Addressed IP targets: Major advances in efficiency of established technologies (Crystalline Silicon and Thin Films) and new concepts

Funding Scheme: Other - ANR

% of PV in the project: 100

Total budget: € 601171

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HEAVENLY - High-efficiency PERT and IBC cell development focussing on paste and CVD optimization for longterm stability

the aim of the project is to move mature silicon based photovoltaic technology into the realms of low cost/high efficiency systems. Focussing on the development of silver pastes for screen printed contacts, chemical vapour deposited layers, solar cell processing and long term solar cell stability. The project will facilitate the transfer of lab proven passivated emitter, rear totally diffused (PERT) technology to an industrial environment. The knowledge gained will then be applied to even more technologically advanced Interdigitated Back Contact (IBC) photovoltaics.


Related IP activities: Technologies for silicon solar cells and modules with higher quality

Addressed IP targets: Major advances in efficiency of established technologies (Crystalline Silicon and Thin Films) and new concepts

Funding Scheme: ERA.NET

% of PV in the project: 100

Total budget: € 1275502

DUALFAB

Thanks to the DualPlas project, DualSun company could develop a hybrid PVT module that generates 3 times more energy than a classical PV panel, using a concept in technical polymer that allows competitiveness in front of the rapid decrease of the cost of PV


Related IP activities: Manufacturing technologies

Addressed IP targets: Major advances in efficiency of established technologies (Crystalline Silicon and Thin Films) and new concepts

Funding Scheme: ADEME

% of PV in the project: 100

Total budget: € 792685

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MoNuTer : Regional meteorological models for solar forcast

This project concerns production forecast of solar plants


Related IP activities: Operation and diagnosis of photovoltaic plants

Addressed IP targets: Other

Funding Scheme: ADEME

% of PV in the project: 100

Total budget: € 722400

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NELL - Novel encapsulant for long lifetime high voltage PID-resistant PV modules

The main goal of the NELL project is to develop a highly PID-resistant encapsulant able to avoid PID even under harsh humidity and temperature conditions in high voltage systems up to 1500 V


Related IP activities: Technologies for silicon solar cells and modules with higher quality

Addressed IP targets: Further enhancement of lifetime, quality and sustainability and hence improving environmental performance

Funding Scheme: ERA.NET

% of PV in the project: 100

Total budget: € 533734

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PANELPV - Sanwich panels with integratef PV with freedom of size and color

The project PanelPV aims at the development of new façade elements with integrated PV. Starting components are sandwich panels made by Panelen Holland and CIGS based PV foil made by Flisom. In the project we will integrate these two into new power generating façade elements. We will develop a technology to make the PV foil translucent, such that the integrated product appears to have the same color as the underlying sandwich panel. This gives the producer of the sandwich panels full freedom in color or print selection


Related IP activities: PV for BIPV and similar applications

Addressed IP targets: Enabling mass realization of NZEB by BIPV through the establishment of structural collaborative innovation efforts between the PV sector and key sectors from the building industry

Funding Scheme: ERA.NET

% of PV in the project: 100

Total budget: € 4284757.4

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PEarl - PERC meets self-aligned selective emitter technologies based on inkjet printing and silver less plating

The project focus is set on the exploitation of selective emitter’s potential in passivated emitter and rear contact (PERC) silicon solar cells. Compared to PERC solar cells with a homogeneous emitter,
those with selective emitter predict a significant increase in conversion efficiency of at least 1.0% absolute and, in consequence, would drastically increase the yield of PV systems, decrease the levelized cost of electricity, and the total cost of ownership
Evaluate self-aligned process techniques based on the steadily advancing inkjet and plating technology, whereby low Ag consumption is aimed at


Related IP activities: Technologies for silicon solar cells and modules with higher quality

Addressed IP targets: Major advances in efficiency of established technologies (Crystalline Silicon and Thin Films) and new concepts

Funding Scheme: ERA.NET

% of PV in the project: 100

Total budget: € 1028709

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RHINO - Realization of High efficiency Industrial N-type sOlar cells

This project targets the development of an industrially feasible manufacturing approach for an n-type cell structure that has demonstrated above 25% efficiency in a cleanroom environment. Key elements of the cell structure are a selective boron-doped emitter and a full area passivated rear contact. For these key elements, production capable processes and high throughput production tools will be developed and implemented in a lean solar cell production process. Reducing the front carrier recombination losses by the selective emitter structure will increase the efficiency of the developed industrial solar cell from currently ~21% to values approaching 23% with open circuit voltages close to 700 mV while using screen printed metallization and established production equipment.


Related IP activities: Manufacturing technologies

Addressed IP targets: Reduction of the cost of key technologies ,Major advances in manufacturing and installation

Funding Scheme: ERA.NET

% of PV in the project: 100

Total budget: € 2317607

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NFA-15

The NFA-15 project aims to demonstrate that non fullerene acceptors can lead to 10% efficiency in fully printed modules


Related IP activities: New Technologies & Materials

Addressed IP targets: Major advances in efficiency of established technologies (Crystalline Silicon and Thin Films) and new concepts

Funding Scheme: Other - ANR

% of PV in the project: 100

Total budget: € 629010

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EnergyMatching

The overall objective of the project is to maximize the RES harvesting in the built environment by developing and demonstrating cost-effective active building skin solutions as part of an optimised building energy system, being connected into local energy grid and managed by a district energy hub implementing optimised control strategies within a comprehensive economic rationale balancing objectives and performance targets of both private and public stakeholders


Related IP activities: PV for BIPV and similar applications

Addressed IP targets: Enabling mass realization of NZEB by BIPV through the establishment of structural collaborative innovation efforts between the PV sector and key sectors from the building industry

Funding Scheme: H2020

% of PV in the project: 20

Total budget: € 6889765.6

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Liquid Si 2.0 Liquid phase deposition of Functional Silicon Layers for Cost-Effective High Efficiency Solar Cells

Primary target of this project is the manufacture of low-cost highly efficient PV cells employing p-/ndoped thin silicon layers prepared by liquid phase processing of hydrogenated polysilanes. The aim of this project is the development of commercially viable synthetic pathways suitable for the large-scale production of alternative perhydridopolysilane precursor materials (Liquid Silicon 2.0) for liquid phase silicon deposition


Related IP activities: New Technologies & Materials

Addressed IP targets: Major advances in efficiency of established technologies (Crystalline Silicon and Thin Films) and new concepts ,Reduction of the cost of key technologies

Funding Scheme: ERA.NET

% of PV in the project: 100

Total budget: € 878122

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FORCE

This project aims at producing semiconducting electron donor polymers and small molecule electron acceptor (SMA) nanoparticle (NP) dispersions as starting materials for the preparation of thin films active layers for optoelectronic devices. The use of NP dispersions has got several advantages over the conventional polymer solution approach as it should allow for a better control of the morphology of the films at the molecular scale (polymer or small molecule aggregation/crystallisation) as well as at the mesoscopic scale (materials domains organization and size in the case of blends of donor and acceptor materials). Indeed, the morphology of the active layer is a key factor to improve the efficiency of optoelectronic devices.
Moreover, one of the recurrent difficulties in the processing of semiconducting polymers is their poor solubility. In our approach, the semiconducting polymer will be dispersed in an environmentally friendly medium such as water.
For this project, we will focus on state-of-the-art fluorinated polymers that have been synthesized in our laboratory and that achieve very high OPV efficiencies in combination with fullerene derivative. These polymers are highly crystalline but their processibility in solution is very low and they have to be spin-casted at high temperature in o-dichlorobenzene. The enginnering of side-chains will be consider in order to enhance their solubility allowing an efficient elaboration of NP by the miniemulsion or the reprecipitation technique. Original non-fullerene small molecules electron acceptor (SMA) developed at ICPEES with very high molar extinction coefficients in the UV-visible range and showing high crystallinity responsible of too strong phase separation will also be used. In this case, their confinement into the NP should be beneficial in order to control the size of the phase separation domains.
Single organic semiconducting (OSC) materials nanoparticles and two-OSC materials composite nanoparticles will be prepared by the miniemulsion or the reprecipitation techniques. Their size, in the range of 20-40 nm, will be measured by Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and their morphology will be characterized by Transmission Electronic Microscopy (TEM), UV-visible spectroscopy or fluorescence. These characterization techniques give a good insight at the scale of the molecular level (presence of vibronic band in the UV-visible spectrum) and at the vicinity of the interface between the two polymers (fluorescence quenching).
In order to understand the aggregation/crystallisation and blend separation mechanisms in NP which occur during the miniemulsion and reprecipitation methods, a more fundamental study will be carried out as a function of process and materials parameters.
The NP will then be organized in thin films by deposition methods such as slow speed spin-casting, leading ideally to a bicontinuous blend morphology with narrow domains sizes (of the order of the nanoparticle size). Moderate thermal annealing will then help reducing the roughness of the film and increase contact between nanoparticles. Characterization of the film will be performed by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), TEM, UV-visible spectroscopy and fluorescence.
Finally, optoelectronic devices will be fabricated with the films as an active layer. The charge-carrier mobility in the films will be probed by the elaboration of an Organic Field Effect Transistor (OFET) and space charge limited current (SCLC) diodes in order to confirm the interconnectivity of the domains in the film. Finally, these polymer blend-based thin films will be used as active layer in organic photovoltaic devices.


Related IP activities: New Technologies & Materials

Addressed IP targets: Major advances in efficiency of established technologies (Crystalline Silicon and Thin Films) and new concepts

Funding Scheme: Other - ANR

% of PV in the project: 50

Total budget: € 194680

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OPERA

The development of “green” energy sources has attracted much intention over the last decade and is currently of a crucial importance for our societies. Because of the greenhouse effect the policies for the development of carbon free energies have become central.
Nevertheless, the terawatt-scale energy demand will remain. The electrical energy supply will therefore have to be an energy mix. Photovoltaics will be the backbone of such a renewable energy system. To fulfill the challenging price targets and to develop new markets (e.g. building integration) the design and production of solar cells working at highest efficiencies is essential.
Crystalline Si dominates the PV market (85%) and will be essential for still a very long time. However, as maximum efficiency is limited to 29.4 %, strategies must be developed to maintain its dominant role in the PV market. One way to reduce losses is to add a top cell with a higher band gap above a conventional silicon cell to create a tandem cell with potentially more than 40 % efficiency. Different ways of developing new top absorbers have been investigated but require the use of indium and gallium. Significant volatility in the price and supply of such matter over the past years has led to considerable concern given their critical roles and their use in a wide range of large scale electronic devices including solar cells. Moreover, III-V tandem cells require the use of epitaxial growth that remain both expensive and limiting for large scale realization and will therefore negatively influence the production costs even at high production capacity. Finaly, the materials used are toxic and their acceptance in society is therefore limited.
It is so important to study and develop new indium-free Earth abundant and non-toxic materials with optimized properties for the realization of innovative solar cell demonstrating affordable cost for mass production.
The OPERA project aims at developing a new kind of low-cost, indium/gallium-free, non-toxic nitride absorber and to realize first test nitride cell by using easy-to-use, up-sizeable and cost affordable production technique (sputtering). This is an ambitious goal that would be a major step forward in the field of solar energy.
Moreover, each intermediate step of the project would bring new knowledge more especially about single top nitride solar cell or related materials fundamental properties. Indeed, the family of Zn-IV-N2 alloys is promising as it could span the solar spectrum and could then replace the InGaN alloys as absorbers. Nonetheless, data about ZnSnN2 alloys remain scarce. The interest of such alloy for PV has increased the last two years, but numerous efforts remain to be done to better understand its fundamental properties.
The OPERA project gathers four laboratories with different specialties and complementary skills: the Jean Lamour Institute - CNRS - France dedicated to material science. The Institute of Electronics Microelectronics and Nanotechnology – CNRS – France with skills in material sciences and device technologies. Institut National de l’Energie Solaire – Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux Energies Alternatives: a well-known French institute for solar technologies and transfer to industry. The Group of electrical engineering of Paris (GeePs), formerly LGEP, is one of the main PV laboratories in France, a founding member of the CNRS PV Photovoltaic Federation (FedPV), and an active partner of IPVF (Institut Photovoltaïque Francilien).


Related IP activities: New Technologies & Materials

Addressed IP targets: Major advances in efficiency of established technologies (Crystalline Silicon and Thin Films) and new concepts

Funding Scheme: Other - ANR

% of PV in the project: 100

Total budget: € 509505

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PITSOL

The PISTOL ANR Industrial Chair Project is a collaboration between TOTAL, a French energy company with interests in photovoltaics, and the LPICM (Physics of Interfaces and Thin Films Laboratory), a CNRS laboratory located at the Ecole Polytechnique that specializes in materials processing using plasmas. The chair holder will be Dr. Erik Johnson, a CNRS researcher at the LPICM, director of the NanoSil research group, and inventor on five key patents covering processes being explored in this project.

The PISTOL project aims to apply the expertise, savoir faire, and intellectual property of the LPICM, (including jointly held patents with TOTAL), to solve two well-defined challenges in semiconductor processing by using novel plasma techniques. The techniques deployed are all complete technological ruptures, invented at the LPICM, and hence offer either (1) a significant cost-reduction over the competing processes or (2) a process unavailable by any other technique.

Beyond these technological ruptures, the project addresses the strategic necessities of both partners in the short and long term. In the short term, the project has been designed to include a task on value creation. The goal of this task is to regularly quantify the economic benefit of the processes developed, and then to determine the best course of action to create value from the results of the projects. Such courses of action include direct use (by Total or its affiliates), licensing to a third party, involvement of a third industrial partner (such as an equipment maker), or joining forces with another academic partner.

Looking towards long term goals, the project is deeply committed to education and training through research, at all levels of study from Masters' courses taught by industrial experts, through internships, to doctoral students and post-doctoral researchers.

The LPICM is uniquely positioned to execute this project due not only to this expertise and intellectual property, but also for their in-house capability to develop such processes from plasma reactor design to material and device testing. The laboratory's long experience in investigating the science of plasma processing (the role of plasma-formed particles, using novel chemistries, exploring non-traditional excitation techniques) for a broad range of applications (display, photovoltaics, optoelectronics, …) is the foundation on which this project is built.

In addition to these reasons, from TOTAL's perspective the LPICM is the ideal partner in this project due to three factors: (1) an established relationship of trust covering confidentiality during cooperative work, enabling more open discussion (2) a shared perspective on value generation, and (3) a proven ability to function with a tight feedback loop with industry.


Related IP activities: New Technologies & Materials

Addressed IP targets: Major advances in efficiency of established technologies (Crystalline Silicon and Thin Films) and new concepts

Funding Scheme: Other - ANR

% of PV in the project: 30

Total budget: € 600000

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DURACIS

The final goal of DURACIS is the development of a novel encapsulation technology with costs below 15 €/m2 and ensuring a durability higher than 25 years for flexible CIGS devices


Related IP activities: New Technologies & Materials

Addressed IP targets: Further enhancement of lifetime, quality and sustainability and hence improving environmental performance

Funding Scheme: ERA-Net

% of PV in the project: 100

Total budget: € 1893153

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Sun'Agri 3

Sun'Agri 3 program is a breaktrough inovation. It associates agronomic research, agricultural data processing and dynamic photovoltaic technology.


Related IP activities: PV for BIPV and similar applications

Addressed IP targets: Other

Funding Scheme: Programme d'investissements d'avenir (PIA)

% of PV in the project: 100

Total budget: € 15100000

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Refined PV: Reduction of Losses by Ultra Fine Metallization and Interconnection of Photovoltaic Solar Cells

Related IP activities: Technologies for silicon solar cells and modules with higher quality

Addressed IP targets: Major advances in efficiency of established technologies (Crystalline Silicon and Thin Films) and new concepts

Funding Scheme: ERA.NET

% of PV in the project: 100

Total budget: € 2676335

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PEARL TF-PV: Performance and Electroluminescence Analysis on Reliability and Lifetime of Thin-Film Photovoltaics

The project aims to reduce the cost of electricity produced by thin-film PV power plants, by improving plant reliability, yield, and prediction of overall plant lifetime using electroluminescence imaging methods.


Related IP activities: Operation and diagnosis of photovoltaic plants

Addressed IP targets: Further enhancement of lifetime, quality and sustainability and hence improving environmental performance

Funding Scheme: ERA.NET

% of PV in the project: 100

Total budget: € 2736288

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ENHANCE Enhanced rooftop PV integration through kinetic storage and wide area monitoring

This project aims to pave the way for a seamless and massive grid integration of small rooftop photovoltaic systems (PVs) by enriching the paradigm of conventional demand response with PV generation and storage response.


Related IP activities: Operation and diagnosis of photovoltaic plants

Addressed IP targets: Other

Funding Scheme: ERA.NET

% of PV in the project: 100

Total budget: € 1674750

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ALCHEMI - A low cost, high efficiency, optoelectronic HCPV Module for 1000 sun operation

Project ALCHEMI demonstrated a new type of low cost, high concentration photovoltaic (HCPV) module which has a DC module efficiency (η) >37% (at Concentrator Standard Test Conditions (CSTC) of 25°C cell temperature and a DNI of 1000W/m2), which operates at a concentration factor of ~1000x. This module efficiency value will be achievable in manufacturing volumes, and not just as a hero result. The module uses small III-V multijunction solar cells (~1mm x 1mm)


Related IP activities: New Technologies & Materials

Addressed IP targets: Reduction of the cost of key technologies

Funding Scheme: ERA-Net

% of PV in the project: 100

Total budget: € 1109183

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